The shoulder joint is the most commonly dislocated joint of the human body, often caused by sports activities or falling. The mechanism of injury is usually trauma. Some common situations that may cause shoulder dislocation include:
- throwing the ball
- overhead kicks
- uncontrolled blows to the arm above the head
- a combination of falling on the arm and slipping.
Spontaneous shoulder dislocations that represent a bigger biomechanical issue are also possible.
In 97% of cases, the shoulder dislocation is anterior.
30% of shoulder dislocations are also accompanied by fractures. Accompanying complications, such as the Hill-Sachs lesion which is a compression fracture and the Bankart lesion where the cartilaginous area of the shoulder joint is injured as a consequence of the head of the humerus hitting the cartilaginous lining.
A rotator cuff injury accompanies approximately 35 to 86% of shoulder joint dislocations.
If the shoulder joint is dislocated before the age of 20, the injury recurs in 80% of patients, whereas dislocating the shoulder joint after 40 years of age, recurs in only 30% of patients.
Shoulder dislocation is characterised by sharp paint, the sensation of movement, a change in the external shape of the joint, and functional limitations of mobility and strength. The entire joint is painful in all directions of movement.
By the means of clinical examination, x-ray imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging, we confirm or deny the possibility that the dislocation was accompanied by lesions of the bony part of the joint, tendon tears or joint capsule injuries.
It is important to undergo diagnostic testing with a specialist since shoulder joint dislocations may be accompanied by varying degrees of structural damage. Recurring shoulder dislocations leave long-term consequences and lead to permanent shoulder instability and limited function, which is why it is important to carefully analyse the dislocation with the performed diagnostics. Diagnostic examinations include x-ray imaging of the skeleton and magnetic resonance imaging. In certain cases, computed tomography (CT) or MR arthrography may also be required.
After a shoulder dislocation, the doctor usually repositions the joint, which is followed by a 7-day rest and then gradual application of individual physiotherapeutic exercise.
First shoulder dislocation is usually treated conservatively. After the second dislocation, the likelihood of a third one increases to 90%, which is why in this case, it makes sense to stabilize the joint operatively.
By implementing an individual exercise programme, we establish a normal range of motion of the shoulder girdle, improve stability and restore strength to the hand in the basic directions of movement.